Can you imagine not being able to go to school because you’re on your period? | Source/complete article: Women24, Feb 10, 2014.
Excerpt - Sue Barnes’ Project Dignity allows girls and young women in townships and rural areas to keep attending school while they’re menstruating.
Sue Barnes, founder of Project Dignity, a remarkable initiative for South African school girls, has been recognised as the 2013 Clarins Most Dynamic Woman of the Year.
Barnes, from Cowies Hill in KwaZulu-Natal, founded the project after she learned how many girls in poor communities skip school while they menstruate.
Lacking money to buy sanitary products, many South African school girls don’t attend class during menstruation.
They also put themselves at risk of infection by using unhygienic alternatives to sanitary pads, such as newspaper or even sand and leaves. As a result, millions of girls miss up to a quarter of their school days.
“My youngest daughter, who attends a remedial school due to her dyslexia, came home with appeals from her school for sanitary pads and panties,” says Barnes. “I went to the school to find out what it was all about, and discovered just how many South African girls skip school while menstruating.
I immediately thought of my own daughter. If she missed a week per month of school there is no way she would catch up. It’s tragic that anyone in their teen years should be faced with this dilemma.”
Barnes realised that donations of sanitary products would not provide a sustainable solution to this profound yet largely hidden social challenge. After much experimentation and several trial runs, she created a pair of panties with a clip-on, reusable pad which ensures the girls need never worry about running out of this essential item.
The pad is fully washable, can last for up to 5 years and has SABS absorbency approval. While handing out Project Dignity’s Subz packs, Barnes also gives the girls a unique set of education sessions on puberty, menstruation, personal hygiene, sexual health and HIV.
- Source/complete article: Women24, Feb 10, 2014.
Filed under: Africa, Hygiene Promotion Tagged: menstrual hygiene, sanitary pads, South Africa
Cape Town, the city where “poo has become a politcial issue“, is hosting an international conference on “Putting Public in Public Services: Research, Action and Equity in the Global South” from 13-16 April 2014 .
Organised by the Municipal Services Project, the conference brings together researchers, activists, labour representatives, development practitioners and policy makers from around the world working to promote progressive public services, including water and sanitation.
The following presentations focus specifically on sanitation:
- Dieter Wartchow (Brazil) – National sanitation laws in Brazil: An opportunity lost?
- Melanie Samson (South Africa) – Including the informal, transforming the public: Insights from innovations in the waste sector
- Federico Parra (Colombia) – Recognition of the ‘recicladores’ as public managers of waste in Colombia
- Poornima Chikarmane (India) – Of users, providers and the state: Solid waste management in Pune, India
- Mary Galvin (South Africa) – Dealing with shit in sub-Sahara Africa: The impact of “new” approaches to sanitation on human rights
- Julieta del Valle (Argentina) – Guaranteeing access to public water and sanitation: ‘Acompañamiento social’ in Buenos Aires
Read more in the full programme.
Registration is free for observers but priority wil be given to people with a demonstrated interest in conference themes.
Registration deadline: 14 March 2014
Those unable to attend can follow debates via video streaming, podcasts and social media.
Conference website: municipalservicesproject.org/about-conference
Filed under: Africa, Campaigns and Events, Dignity and Social Development, Latin America & Caribbean, South Asia Tagged: Municipal Services Project, privatisation, public services, sanitation services
Garbage Clinical Insurance: Young Indonesian Doctor Receives Award From Prince of Wales | Source/complete article – Establishment Post, Feb 12, 2014.
Excerpts – Gamal Albinsaid, a young Indonesian doctor, has recently been awarded the inaugural “Prince of Wales Young Sustainability Entrepreneur Prize” from the Prince of Wales. He was given the award during a dinner reception at the Buckingham Palace at the end of January. His innovative project helps the poorest communities gain access to health services and education through the collection and recycling of garbage called the Garbage Clinical Insurance enterprise.
Mr Albinsaid, currently the chief executive officer (CEO) of Indonesia Medika, is the Founder of the Indonesian social enterprise Garbage Clinical Insurance (GCI). He was inspired to set up the micro-insurance programme to empower people to take an active role in managing their waste while improving their sanitation.
The 24-year-old doctor set up the initiative in 2009 when he was still a medical student at the Brawijaya University in Malang, East Java province. Mr Albinsaid was saddened upon hearing the death of a three year old child from diarrhea because the parents could not afford to take the child to any clinic for help.
The GCI has help communities in need turn in their household waste into something that could improve their health.
The scheme provides insurance to members of the clinic in return for their garbage. Every weekend, members bring their organic and non-organic waste to a collection point near the clinic to be directly processed and sold.
Afterward, collected garbage is processed into money considered as “health fund premium” for all members.
- Source/complete article – Establishment Post, Feb 12, 2014.
Filed under: East Asia & Pacific, Economic Benefits Tagged: garbage, Indonesia, social entrepreneurs
Issue 133 February 7, 2014 | Focus on WASH and Design Thinking
Design thinking is an interesting approach to problem solving. Clark Kellogg, from the University of California, Berkeley and Collective Invention, states “Unlike most previous problem solving approaches, it is human-centric, collaborative, and driven by experimentation.” One important principle of design thinking is to get feedback from real users as soon as possible in the form of prototypes. While early prototypes often fail, design thinking enables designers to quickly refine ideas based upon feedback from real users. One of the benefits of design thinking is to mitigate risk by testing early and failing fast.
David Kelley of IDEO Talks “Design Thinking” on 60 Minutes. CBS 60 Minutes, Jan 2013. (Link)
What makes a great designer? According to IDEO founder David Kelley, being an incredible designer isn’t necessarily about having a great aesthetic sensibility or coming up with out-of-the-box ideas. No, Kelley says that the key characteristic is empathy. Kelley has been on teams that created many game-changing products, from the first Apple computer mouse to the stand-up toothpaste tube to the “lavatory occupied” sign on airplanes. And on 60 Minutes, Kelley gives a tour of IDEO and shares his unique approach to what he calls “design thinking.”
Collective Action Toolkit, 2013. Frog Design. (Link)
Is it possible to inspire design thinking outside of the design world? The practice has helped countless organizations innovate new products and services but has infrequently been made available to a broad audience. Frog set out to prove the practice is universal by creating the Collective Action Toolkit, a set of resources and activities to help people accomplish tangible outcomes through a set of guided, nonlinear collaboration activities.
Design Thinking Demystified: An Interview with Clark Kellogg, 2013. N Mahajan. (Link)
Design thinking derives its basic principles from the discipline of design. As Clark Kellogg, partner at Collective Invention and lecturer at UC Berkeley’s Haas School of Business and College of Environmental Design, explains, unlike most previous problem solving approaches, it is human-centric, collaborative, and driven by experimentation. Many companies, such as consumer products giant Procter & Gamble, GE Healthcare, and Philips Lighting have adopted design thinking processes.
Design Thinking: Training Yourself to Be More Creative, 2013. (Video)
In this webinar Professor Bill Burnett summarizes the Innovation Masters Series course in 2013 at Stanford University.
From Design to Design Thinking, 2013. (Video)
Tim Brown, president and CEO of IDEO, explains how to go from design to design thinking and how it applies to health care in this Transform 2009 symposium sponsored by the Mayo Clinic Center for Innovation.
Solving Problems with Design Thinking, 2013. (Video)
Most managers lack a sense of how to use design thinking for issues other than product development and sales growth. Solving Problems with Design Thinking details 10 real-world examples of managers who successfully applied design methods at 3M, Toyota, IBM, Intuit, and SAP; entrepreneurial start-ups such as MeYou Health; and government and social sector organizations.
WASH/COOKSTOVE CASE STUDIES
Bringing Design Thinking to Social Problems, 2013. W Pastroek. (Link)
The nonprofit IDEO.org takes on issues like sanitation and clean cookstoves from the unique perspective of the design world. Jocelyn Wyatt and Patrice Martin are the co-leads and executive directors of IDEO.org, the unique nonprofit wing of innovative design firm IDEO. Their mission: apply human-centered design to poverty-related challenges … and in the process, change the way that a for-profit business can use its resources to create social good.
Building Human-Centered Design into ICT4D Projects: An Interview with Danny Alexander and Sean Hewens. Best Practice in ICT4D, July 2013. (Link)
In general the development community is very risk averse. If things go badly, you’re not talking about losing quarterly profits but losing lives.
Cooks + Cookstoves: Daily Life in Tanzania, n.d. S Boutilier. (Video)
IDEO.org used a human-centered design (HCD) approach to examine the habits, motivations, and aspirations of cookstove users in Tanzania. This movie provides a glimpse into the lives of some of the cookstove users that the IDEO.org team met while conducting HCD research in Tanzania.
Design for Those Who Need it Most: Lessons from the Nepal Sanitation Studio, 2014. Nepal Sanitation Studio. (Link)
The Village Sanitation Program in Nepal has been designed to improve health, and that means all the parts that make the program work—the buildings, all that lies beneath the ground, the people, and the ongoing maintenance—have to function. This requires the very best design, construction, and ongoing, locally organized maintenance.
Design Thinking for Water Challenged Rural Communities. iHub Research, May 2013. M Kamau. (Link)
iHub Research conducted a comprehensive research project among the rural population of Kenya that looked at water-related challenges the communities face. During a design thinking workshop, stakeholders gathered to discuss ways for rural citizens to access water information.
An Inside Look at a New Documentary on Extremely Affordable Design, 2013. R Goodier, Engineering for Change. (Link)
The documentary features students in a Stanford University course, Design for Extreme Affordability. During the course, the students design, build, and finally field test their inventions in the communities that could use them. The student inventors apply the principles of design thinking, the evolution of a product that starts with recognizing a problem and ends with testing a prototype that could solve it. The devices include a container for safely storing drinking water in an Indonesian community, an IV infusion pump, and a breathing apparatus to treat babies with pneumonia in Bangladesh.
- BoP Designer Daily (e-newsletter) - (Link)
- CoDesign from Fast Company - (Link)
- MIT’s D-Lab - (Link)
- Stanford’s D-School - (Link)
- Virtual Crash Course on Design Thinking, Stanford D.School - (Link)
WASHplus Weeklies will highlight topics such as Urban WASH, Indoor Air Pollution, Innovation, Household Water Treatment and Storage, Hand Washing, Integration, and more. If you would like to feature your organization’s materials in upcoming issues, please send them to Dan Campbell, WASHplus Knowledge Resources Specialist, at email@example.com.
Filed under: Progress on Sanitation Tagged: design thinking
The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) with assistance of a team led by Stockholm Environment Institute is inviting you to the 6th webinar with Gates Foundation sanitation grantees.
- Topic of the webinar is “Productive sanitation“
- Date/Time: Tuesday 25 February 2014, 16:30 – 17:15 (CET – Central European Time; use this time converter to find your local time)
- Agenda: 16:00 Set-up of connections (you can start entering the virtual meeting room) – 16:30 recording starts – three presentations; each presentation is about 5 minutes long and is followed by around 10 minutes of questions – 17:15 end of webinar.
- The virtual meeting room can accommodate up to 100 participants. Attendance at this webinar is open to all.
- After the event, the recorded webinar will be put online on the SuSanA Youtube channel.
- Recordings of the past five webinars are available in this Playlist.
Three grantees of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation will present their research results:
(1) Large scale production and commercialization of “Fortifer” – a fertilizer manufactured from faecal sludge – in Ghana – By Olufunke Cofie and Josiane Nikiema (IWMI-Ghana), IWMI (International Water Management Institute) West Africa Office, Accra, Ghana
- Previous discussion about this research on the forum.
(2) When flies are the good guys: can black soldier flies (BSF) efficiently reduce faecal sludge from pit latrines? Research into variations in BSF growth related to the amount of waste reduced – By Ian Banks, LSHTM (PhD student, Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine), London, UK
- Previous discussion about this research on the forum. The research is part of this larger grant that has several sub-projects.
(3) Vapor-permeable membranes: Three potential uses in faecal sludge management for safe sanitation and resource recovery - By Steven K. Dentel, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, USA
- Previous discussion about this research on the forum.
There is no need to install any software to attend, simply go to this website. However, to obtain the passcode to enter the virtual room, please e-mail:
- Elisabeth von Muench: firstname.lastname@example.org or
- Arno Rosemarin: email@example.com or
- Dorothee Spuhler: firstname.lastname@example.org
Your attendance will be with or without microphone rights and video, depending on the number of people as well as your bandwidth. During the webinar, people in the audience can also use the chat function of Adobe Connect to ask questions.
This is the sixth webinar in a series with the aim to give increased exposure to the BMGF research grants, which are also discussed on the SuSanA Discussion Forum here since January 2013. So far 68 grantees and their colleagues have presented their projects and results on the SuSanA discussion Forum and engaged in discussions with the sanitation community
Filed under: Uncategorized
Join together for greater U.S. leadership on safe drinking water and sanitation, Advocacy Day at the US Capitol, March 13.
US residents who support safe drinking water and safe sanitation (WASH) for the world’s poorest people can join us to meet with Congressional offices to let them know that we need greater U.S. leadership for WASH.
WASH is one of the most cost-effective interventions available to improve health and reduce poverty.
WASH has major impacts for all people – but they are most dramatic in the life of a girl as she grows up:
- Access to WASH will prevent her from dying from diarrhea and other water-related illness as a child.
- It will allow her to attend school instead of spending hours collecting water.
- It helps her to care for her children, who are also made healthier with reliable access to safe water and sanitation.
- It helps her to earn an income.
WASH is foundational for healthy and productive families and communities.
Can’t be in DC on March 13? You can conduct Congressional meetings in your U.S. city, too. Just register as an “in-district” participant and we will provide all the information you need to be an effective advocate for vital WASH action.
Our main message to Congress will be the far-reaching impacts of safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene, how much great progress has been made in recent years, and how Americans can cost-effectively help these communities reach the final goal. WASH can change this equation!What We Do on Advocacy Day
There is no charge for registration to be part of Advocacy Day on Capitol Hill! You do need to be a citizen or legal resident of the US, provide us some basic information about yourself, and plan to be present on March 13 the whole day!
When you register here, you will receive a confirmation email. Later we will contact you by email to assign you to a team with two or three other citizen advocates to conduct visits to Congressional offices on Advocacy Day.
You will be sent background materials on the issue (we keep it simple, don’t worry!), helpful tips on how to advocate to members of Congress, a schedule of events for the day, and other helpful materials. We will not sell your information to any organization, and your email will be used to communicate with you about plans for Advocacy Day and provide updates on the issue.
You and your team members will visit three to four (on average) offices of Members of Congress (the U.S. House and Senate). But first, you will join us that morning for breakfast on Capitol Hill, get a briefing on the issue, and learn all you need to know about being an effective advocate in your visits.
Approximate schedule for Advocacy Day, Thursday, March 13, 2014:
(all times are Eastern Time and subject to change)
- 8:00 AM – Sign in at event site begins
- 8:30 AM - Advocacy Day breakfast and issue briefing
- 10:00 AM – Guest speakers; training on meeting with members of Congress and staff
- 11:00 AM – Break into your teams
- 12:00 NOON – Start your office visits – appointments will made ahead of time, and you will be provided a schedule and all you need to know. Teams can easily get lunch together at various locations.
- 5:00 PM - By this time, office visits have ended. (A “more social” gathering may be organized for those who wish to do so!)
DEADLINE: Register as soon as you can – it really helps us to organize better! The DEADLINE for registration is Friday, FEBRUARY 28.
Filed under: Campaigns and Events Tagged: WASH Advocacy Day 2014
Handwashing Promotion: Monitoring and Evaluation Module, 2013. UNICEF.
This guide will walk you through planning and implementing monitoring and evaluation (M&E) for your handwashing promotion programme. Programmes that promote handwashing are diverse and vary in scope. The content of this module is designed to be adapted to a variety of programmes. In this guide, you will be introduced to:
- The 7 major steps of monitoring and evaluating handwashing promotion.
- Choosing indicators appropriate to the programme’s objectives.
- Collecting the necessary data, and sample questions for indicators relevant to handwashing advocacy, education and behaviour change.
- Health impact measurement and caveats for the inclusion of health impact assessment as part of an M&E plan.
Filed under: Hygiene Promotion, Publications Tagged: handwashing, unicef
Monitor Deloitte has estimated that the demand for rural toilets in India could be worth INR 500-700 billion (US$ 10-14 billion), with an INR 300-450 billion (US$ 6-9 billion) financing opportunity. This is one of key key highlights from their recent white paper.
The paper identified two main types of business models to deliver rural toilets: the Do It Yourself (DIY) model and a Turnkey Solution Provider (TSP) model. Both models require a central player or ‘market maker’ to conduct market-building activities to get the models started. Organisations such as NGOs, microfinance institution (MFIs) and cement companies can play this role, while the Government has a key role in facilitating the development of the sanitation market.
The Government of India has approved funding of over US$ 4 billion for rural sanitation, but less than 60% of these funds have been used, the paper says. Census data indicates that many of these Government supported toilets may be non-existent or not-in-use.
Research by Monitor Deloitte in the Indian state of Bihar showed 84% of households surveyed in rural Bihar indicated their desire for a toilet and 38% of these households had actually researched available product options. Safety of women, convenience and privacy as opposed to health were key drivers.
Deloitte is organising a series of open conference calls to discuss their findings on the following dates:
- February 12, 10am IST
- February 25, 10am IST
- March 5, 9:30am IST
- March 13, 9:30pm IST
Please request RSVPs to email@example.com for more information and materials for the call.
Filed under: Economic Benefits, Funding, Publications, South Asia Tagged: Bihar, India, Monitor Deloitte, rural sanitation, sanitation marketing
Cairo: Finding its own way in waste collection – Danish Architecture Centre | Source/complete article: Sustainable Cities, Jan 2014
Excerpts – For decades, much of Cairo’s waste has been resourcefully collected and reused by a poor working class known as the Zabbaleen. After a failed attempt to modernise and sanitize this system by bringing in foreign waste-collecting companies, some major advantages to developing a sustainable, economically logical and uniquely Cairo waste-collecting system have become clear.
Since the 1950′s, a group of lower class garbage collectors known as the Zabbaleen have wandered the city of Cairo, Egypt, using donkey carts to pick up waste left on the streets. After bringing this waste to their homes that collectively make up Cairo’s “garbage city” the waste it is sorted and eventually turned into quilts, rugs, pots, paper, livestock food, compost, recycled plastic products such as clothes hangers, and much more. Reusing and recycling about 85% of all waste that they collect, the Zabbaleen have far surpassed the efficiencies of even the best Western recycling schemes, which, under optimal conditions, have only been able to reuse 70% of all material.
However, in 2003, the Egyptian government announced plans to “modernise” the waste collection system, bringing in three European Companies. Their reasoning was that the Zabbaleen, combined with the government’s present waste management system, were only able to collect about 60% of all city waste (40% collected by Zabbaleen and 20% by the government). In addition to being unable to meet the growing waste collection demand, the existing system was also detested for its aesthetic problems in wealthy and tourist-visited areas that were losing commercial opportunities to donkey carts and smells of rotting dung. Finally, the government argued that the Zabbaleen practises were backward and unsanitary, pointing to the abundance of disease and hepatitis in their communities resulting from hand-sorting rubbish with sharp metal, broken glass, and hospital waste such as syringes.
While all of these arguments were mostly true, the new “modernised” waste collection system still managed to collapse after its first year of operation. It seems the primary reason for this was a failure to compete with or hire the Zabbaleen as collectors, offering them a maximum of only $1 USD a day; a wage which could easily be doubled using the existing donkey cart, sorting and selling system. Also, since it is almost impossible to recycle garbage after it is compressed by a western collection truck, the European companies were only able to recycle about 20% of all waste. In this sense, the profit they were generating from their government salary and sale of recyclables was far surpassed by that which the Zabbaleen were obtaining by simply selling and re-selling products made from many different kinds of waste.
Now, with streets again filled with rubbish and a government that is $50 million USD poorer, Cairo seems to be realising that a new waste collection system must include the Zabbaleen and must have a percentage of recycled waste closer to that which the Zabbaleen achieve. Ultimately, it seems that the answer lies not in the adoption of a foreign system but in the pioneering of a novel solution that is sustainable, economically logical, and unique to Cairo. Recent proposals suggest the use of government-funded collection vehicles that do not compact waste and are operated by presently unemployed citizens. These vehicles collect garbage from citizens who have sorted their rubbish into organic and inorganic categories. Inorganic waste is brought to sorting facilities where the Zabbaleen can manually sort through it more efficiently (and perhaps more safely) in order to recycle and reuse as much waste as possible using the production methods presently in place. Organic waste goes to government composting plants that ensure it is not fed to smelly disease-carrying livestock in the city.
Cairo’s waste management story is not just a living testament to the value in rubbish and the money that can be made in waste-sorting. It is also yet another example of how sustainability often requires us to assess our individual unique situation and not simply resort to importing solutions that have worked elsewhere.
Zabbaleen History – Over the many decades that the Zabbaleen have lived in Cairo, their lifestyle and living conditions have greatly improved. With the help of a technical assistance group, the local government, and international donors such as the International Development Association of the World Bank, the Zabbaleen have been able to invest in technologies such as plastic shredders and cloth looms to produce usable products and turn a profit. Also, many young Zabbaleen have learned how to recycle high tech goods, selling usable electronic parts back to their original companies. Accordingly, despite being a religious minority and initially detested within Cairo, they have developed a symbiotic relationship with the city that, today, many inhabitants are unwilling to part with.
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, Hygiene Promotion, Middle East & North Africa, Sanitary Facilities Tagged: solid wastes, waste pickers, Zabbaleen
A highly critical article in Development and Change argues that the Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) approach, which the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) has promoted in Indonesia, is not only “inadequate” but also “echoes coercive, race-based colonial public health practices”.
Authors Dr Susan Engel and Anggun Susilo reveal striking similarities between developments in Indonesian sanitation in the 1920s and the 1990s. In both eras the focus changed from “the provision of hardware to [...] participation and social mobilization” to encourage “individuals and communities to construct and maintain their own sanitation facilities”.
In the 1920s, the Rockefeller Foundation led the change, 70 years later it was WSP. In both cases the approaches are said to have met resistance because they were coercive and humiliating for the poorest, who also had to pay for latrines they couldn’t really afford.
Engel and Susilo found no evidence that the CLTS approach in Indonesia was sustainable. They conclude that government involvement, not just self-help CLTS approaches, is essential for successful sanitation.
Engel, S, and Susilo, A., 2014. Shaming and sanitation in Indonesia : a return to colonial public health practices?. Development and change, 45, 1, pp. 157-178. DOI: 10.1111/dech.12075
India, Madhya Pradesh: sanitation campaign humiliates women, say critics, Sanitation Updates, 24 Dec 2014
WASHplus Weekly: Community-Led Total Sanitation, Sanitation Updates, 13 Dec
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, East Asia & Pacific Tagged: Community-Led Total Sanitation, Indonesia, Rockefeller Foundation, Water and Sanitation Program
In the wake of the World Cup and the Olympics, activists in Brazil are taking to the streets (and the beaches) demanding more investment in neglected public services like sanitation.
Activist group Meu Rio (My Rio) sat on lavatories on Ipanema beach in Rio de Janeiro to raise awareness about the dumping of untreated sewage into the sea. The group also laid out coloured silhouettes of common bacteria found in sewage on the sand.
Some 70% of Rio’s sewage is said to be untreated as it flows into the sea off the beaches of Copacabana, Ipanema and the Guanabara Bay, which will host several events at the 2016 Olympics and Paralympics.
Source: Sky News, 26 Jan 2014
Filed under: Campaigns and Events, Latin America & Caribbean, Wastewater Management Tagged: Brazil, Meu Rio, Raw sewage, Rio de Janeiro, sewage disposal
The Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF) has US$ 20,000 on offer for a proposal for an economical, sustainable lighting system for latrines in refugee or displaced persons camps.
Communal latrine facilities in camps are often underutilised at night when it is dark for fear of harassment and attacks especially for women and children. Existing lighting systems tend to be costly as most camps do not have a central electrical system as a power source. Also, battery systems tend to get stolen for valuable parts. This Challenge is to design a lighting system for communal latrine facilities that will promote safety and utilization. The system must be robust, economical and not easily vandalized or stolen.
This is a Theoretical Challenge that requires only a written proposal to be submitted. Award winners does not need to transfer their exclusive IP rights to the HIF, but instead grant HIF non-exclusive license to practice their solutions.
Deadline: 16 March 2014
For more information and to register for the Challenge, go to:
The Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF) is managed by ELRHA (Enhancing Learning and Research for Humanitarian Assistance) and administered by Save the Children.
The HIF’s £3.3 million (US$ 5.5 million) WASH Innovation Fund is supported by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and will initially focus on two challenges:
- Lighting Latrines (see above)
- Managing Solid Waste, due to launch later in January 2014, which will award designs for a new incinerator, compactor or recycling method that is rapidly deployable, cost-effective and easy to use.
As well as these two open challenges, the WASH Innovation Fund will also support Accelerated Innovation events for more complex challenges. These will bring together aid agencies, businesses and academics already working in the sector to collaborate and create partnerships that can develop and test new ideas.
For full details go to:
Source: DFID, Could you help save lives in a disaster zone?, GOV.UK, 18 Jan 2014
Filed under: Emergency Sanitation, Funding Tagged: DFID, Humanitarian Innovation Fund, latrine lighting, solid waste management, WASH Innovation Fund
This is a bilingual seminar on Monitoring the decentralised delivery of WASH services in rural areas and small towns in West Africa in Ouagagoudou, Burkina Faso organised by IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre and pS-Eau.
Date: 07 – 09 April 2014
Designed in priority for stakeholders working in collaboration with local governments, this seminar will be an opportunity to share experiences in the field of monitoring WASH services at local level in West Africa.
The seminar will be structured around four themes:
- Monitoring and evaluation to support local governments’ water and sanitation strategic planning
- Monitoring and evaluation to improve water, sanitation and hygiene services
- Monitoring and evaluation to manage water and sanitation services
- Monitoring and evaluation to regulate water and sanitation services
but related topics are also of interest to the organisers.
Deadline for submission of abstracts: 17 February 2014
More information: www.irc.nl/page/82341
Filed under: Africa, Campaigns and Events Tagged: IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, monitoring, pS-Eau
How to Trigger for Handwashing with Soap. Frontiers of CLTS: Innovations and Insights, Issue 02, January 2014.
The Open Defecation Free (ODF) Malawi 2015 Strategy and National Hand Washing Campaign have been contributing to an increased focus on handwashing with soap (HWWS) in Malawi. This is a very positive development!
Some studies estimate that washing hands with soap can reduce diarrhoeal disease rates by up to 50 per cent and respiratory disease rates by up to 25 per cent. This makes handwashing with soap one of the most cost-effective interventions for reducing illness and preventable deaths among children in Malawi. It is therefore quite worthwhile for us to be working together to increase handwashing practices.
Since Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is our key intervention for sanitation and hygiene promotion in Malawi, it provides an excellent opportunity to facilitate handwashing behaviour change. However, up till now, the ‘triggering tools’ for achieving HWWS behaviour change from CLTS have not been well known by implementers in Malawi. The purpose of this document is to outline several practical tools which can be used as a part of CLTS in order to trigger realisation among communities of the importance of handwashing with soap, as well as eliminating open defecation.
Filed under: Africa, Hygiene Promotion Tagged: CLTS, handwashing, Malawi, unicef
WASH/Nutrition Literature Update – January 2014
This update contains recent studies and reports on WASH and nutrition issues plus updates on new publications and resources from members of the USAID Community of Practice on WASH and Nutrition. Please contact WASHplus if you have new publications or upcoming events you would like to feature in the February 2014 update. Most of the studies below can also be found on the WASH/Nutrition Library at: http://blogs.washplus.org/washnutrition.
UPDATES FROM COP MEMBERS – New Publications, Upcoming Events, etc.
Alive & Thrive - Ensuring Adequate Nutrient Intake. Insight, Issue 7, 2013. (Link)
This issue examines why infants require a much higher quality diet than other members of the household, identifies nutrient gaps in typical complementary food diets, and describes strategies for achieving adequate nutrient intake among children 6-24 months old.
FANTA III - Nutrition Assessment, Counseling, and Support (NACS): A User’s Guide, 2013. (Link)
The NACS User’s Guide is a series of modules that provide program managers and implementers with a package of essential information and resources. These modules are living documents and will be updated as appropriate when new evidence, guidelines, or field experience emerges.
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) - Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH), Nutrition and Infection: Learning Module Update. (Link)
The latest evidence from a Cochrane systematic review found a small but significant improvement in the growth of children under the age of 5 who have access to clean water and soap. Analysis of the data from 14 studies conducted in low and middle income countries suggested that interventions to improve the quality of the water in the household and provide soap resulted in an average 0.5 cm increased height growth in children under the age of 5.
USAID SPRING Project - The Nigeria Community and Facility Infant and Young Child Feeding Package, 2013. (Link)
This Infant and Young Child Feeding Package is a necessary tool to ensure uniform training and information sharing throughout Nigeria.
USAID DRAFT Agency-wide Nutrition Strategy [public comment sought], December, 2013. (Link)
A technical working group, comprising individuals across USAID, has developed a draft nutrition strategy and is seeking public comment.
Cyclosporiasis: An Emerging Potential Threat for Water Contamination. Water and Health 2014. H Ahmad. (Abstract)
Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging protozoan parasite that causes small intestine gastroenteritis. There is apparently a worldwide distribution, including regions of endemicity, for example, in Nepal, Haiti, and Peru. Due to the lack of a quantification technique, there is limited information on the prevalence of Cyclospora in water environments, necessitating the need for further research on pathways and transmission dynamics and encouraging innovative research in water treatment for improving sanitation and public health.
Public Health and Social Benefits of At-House Water Supplies, 2013. (Link)
B Evans et al.
The headline conclusion from this research is that at-home water supply has significant, measurable benefits when compared with shared water supply outside the home provided that the service is reliable enough to ensure access to adequate quantities of water when required. Reliable at-home water supply results in higher volumes of water consumption, greater practice of key hygiene behaviors, a reduction in musculoskeletal impacts associated with carrying water from outside the home, and improved water quality.
Sanitation and Externalities: Evidence from Early Childhood Health in Rural India, 2014. The World Bank. (Link)
This paper examines two sources of benefits related to sanitation infrastructure access on early childhood health: a direct benefit a household receives when moving from open to fixed-point defecation or from unimproved sanitation to improved sanitation, and an external benefit (externality) produced by the neighborhood’s access to sanitation infrastructure.
Social Protection and Resilient Food Systems: The Role of Cash Transfers, 2013. Overseas Development Institute. (Link)
If linked to education and awareness-raising, cash transfer programs can improve water and sanitation hygiene practices.
JOURNAL ARTICLES/BLOG POSTS
Assessing Hand Hygiene Practices in Schools Benefiting from the Ghana School Feeding Programme. Science Journal of Public Health, 2014; 2(1). I Monney. (Link)
School feeding programs have been shown to impact positively on nutritional status and cognition of school children as well as hunger and poverty alleviation. There is, however, a dearth of information regarding hand hygiene in schools benefiting from these programs. This study assesses hand hygiene practices, barriers, and compliance to proper hand hygiene in schools benefiting from the Ghana School Feeding Programme.
Association of Food-Hygiene Practices and Diarrhea Prevalence among Indonesian Young Children from Low Socioeconomic Urban Areas. BMC Public Health 2013, 13:977. R Augustina. (Link)
Information is lacking about the role poor food-hygiene practices play in the development of diarrhea in low socio-economic urban communities. This study was aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. Overall poor food-hygiene practices were not associated with the prevalence of diarrhea among children under five, but were significantly associated with more diarrhea among children under 2 years. Therefore, food safety education should be especially targeted to this age group.
Enteric Pathogens in Stored Drinking Water and on Caregiver’s Hands in Tanzanian Households with and without Reported Cases of Child Diarrhea. PLoS One, Jan 2014. M. Mattioli. (Link)
The prevalence of enteric pathogen genes and the human-specific Bacteroidales fecal marker in stored water and on hands suggests extensive environmental contamination within homes both with and without reported child diarrhea. Better stored water quality among households with diarrhea indicates caregivers with sick children may be more likely to ensure safe drinking water in the home. Interventions to increase the quantity of water available for hand washing, and to improve food hygiene, may reduce exposure to enteric pathogens in the domestic environment.
Fecal Contamination of Food, Water, Hands, and Kitchen Utensils at the Household Level in Rural Areas of Peru. Journal of Environmental Health. Jan/Feb 2014. A Gil.(Abstract/order info)
The study described in this article evaluated sources of contamination of children’s food and drinking water in rural households in the highlands of Peru. These findings indicate a need to develop hygiene interventions that focus on specific kitchen utensils and hand washing practices, to reduce the contamination of food, water, and the kitchen environment in these rural settings.
Food Hygiene and Sanitation in Infants and Young Children: A Paediatric Food-Based Dietary Guideline. South Afr Jnl Clin Nutrition, (26) 2013. L Bourne. (Link)
This paper has three related aims. Firstly, it aims to profile the current food hygiene and safety needs of children under the age of 5 in South Africa. Secondly, to reflect the importance of domestic hygiene and access to water and sanitation in reducing the transmission of gastrointestinal pathogens while feeding infants and young children. And, thirdly, to highlight the need for collaboration between healthcare professionals and the local authorities who provide basic services.
Long-Term Impact of Community-Based Information, Education and Communication Activities on Food Hygiene and Food Safety Behaviors in Vietnam: A Longitudinal Study. PLoS ONE, Aug 2013. K. Takanashi. (Link)
Ingestion of contaminated water or food is a major contributor to childhood diarrhea in developing countries. In Vietnam, the use of community-based information, education, and communication (IEC) activities could be a sustainable strategy to improve food hygiene and food safety behaviors. This study thus examined the long-term impact of community-based IEC activities on food hygiene and food safety behaviors.
Measuring Disparities in Sanitation Access: Does the Measure Matter? Trop Med Int Health, Jan 2014. R Rheingans. (Link)
Initiatives to monitor progress in health interventions like sanitation are increasingly focused on disparities in access. This study explores three methodological challenges to monitoring changes in sanitation coverage across socio-economic and demographic determinants: confounding by wealth indices including water and sanitation assets, use of individual urban and rural settings versus national wealth indices, and child-level versus household-level analyses. Standard asset indices provide a reasonably robust measure of disparities in improved sanitation, although overestimation is possible. Estimates and disparities in household-level coverage of improved sanitation can underestimate coverage for children under 5.
Socio-Economic Inequalities in Malnutrition among Children and Adolescents in Colombia: The Role of Individual-Household-and Community-Level Characteristics.Public Health Nutr. Sept 2013 Sep. S Garcia. (Abstract)
Children and adolescents living in the poorest households were close to five times more likely to be stunted, while those from the richest households were 13–28 times more likely than their poorest counterparts to be overweight. Care practices and household characteristics, particularly mother’s education, explained over one-third of socio-economic inequalities in stunting. The proportion explained by access to services was not negligible (between 6 percent and 14 percent). Access to sanitation was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of stunting for all age groups.
Spoiled Breast Milk and Bad Water; Local Understandings of Diarrhea Causes and Prevention in Rural Sierra Leone. BMC Public Health, Dec 2013. S McMahon. (Link)
Categorizing behaviors as beneficial, harmful, nonexistent, or benign enables tailored programmatic recommendations. For example, respondents recognized the value of clean water and we correspondingly recommend interventions that reinforce consumption of and access to clean water. Respondents also reported denying “contaminated” breast milk to breastfeeding children—a harmful practice that merits attention. The role of open defecation and poor hygiene in causing diarrhea was less understood and warrants introduction or clarification. Finally, the role of exposed feet or curses in causing diarrhea is relatively benign and does not necessitate programmatic attention.
WASHplus Weekly: Focus on Food Hygiene, July 2013. WASHplus. (Link)
This issue contains studies and resources on food hygiene from 2012 and 2013. Included are studies on weaning foods, food hygiene in households, food hygiene in schools, and informal sector street food vendors.LINKS
- WASH/Nutrition Library
- WASH/Nutrition Literature Update, December 2013
- Alive & Thrive/Clean, Fed and Nurtured
- Care Groups-Food for the Hungry
- FANTA Project
- Food Security and Nutrition Network
- PATH-Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition Program
- RICE Institute (Research Institute for Compassionate Economics)
- SPRING Project
The USAID Community of Practice on WASH, Nutrition, and Food Security was established to facilitate a dialog between and among the staff at USAID and partner organizations. The goals are to encourage discussion around unanswered questions for integrated programming and to provide a clearinghouse for informative articles, events, and recent studies and datasets.
Filed under: Sanitation and Health Tagged: Nutrition, WASH nutrition integration
Assessment of Beliefs and Practices Relating to Menstrual Hygiene of Adolescent Girls in Lebanon. International Journal of Health Sciences and Research (IJHSR), 2013; 3(12): 75-88.
Authors: Tania Santina, Nancy Wehbe, Fouad M. Ziade, Mona Nehme.
Introduction: Poor menstrual hygiene prevents achieving the several Millennium Development Goals. The aim of this study was to assess menstrual hygiene practices based on sociocultural beliefs of adolescent girls in Lebanon.
Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted, in 2010, among 389 post-menarcheal adolescent girls aged 13 to 19 years, at five high schools in Sidon city and suburbs, using a cluster randomized sampling and self-completed questionnaires. Collected data was analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results: Of 389 participants, 89.5% did not follow all menstrual hygiene practices recommended, they adopted menstrual practices based on the dominant sociocultural beliefs found in the Lebanese society about these matters: 66.9% and 16.5%, respectively, did not shower in the first three days of menstruation or during all days of menstruation, and activity restrictions included physical (70.3%) and social (18.2%) activity and diet (35.5%).
A significant association was found between describe menstrual hygiene practices based on sociocultural beliefs and type of school, religion, both parents’ education levels, as well as family monthly income. Logistic regression analyses indicated that significant variables predicting describe menstrual hygiene practices based on sociocultural beliefs were mother level education (OR = 2.8; P < 0.001), and religion (OR = 0.7; P = 0.002).
Conclusion: Findings indicate the need for health school education programs during puberty; they also can help design appropriate intervention strategies.
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, Middle East & North Africa, Sanitary Facilities Tagged: Lebanon, menstrual hygiene
A ‘Losing Prospect’ Argument for Changing Sanitation Behaviour |
- Source/complete article& references: Nidi Khurana, End Poverty in South Asia – Jan 15, 2014.
- Fact #1: One in six people still defecate in the open.
- Fact #2: Most of them are not entirely convinced that a toilet does any good.
- Fact #3: Many of the recent toilet adopters still like to go in the open.
With a myriad missing links to sustainable sanitation uptake, I’ll stick my neck out and say that the stickiest issue in sanitation today is not one of lack of investment, nor political commitment or markets. Clearly, the governments understand the wide-ranging impacts of sanitation on health, environment, and economy, and have committed billions of dollars to increasing sanitation coverage. Recently, the Government of India quadrupled its investment in rural sanitation in the current planning period (2012 – 2017) to US$ 6 billion through its ambitious Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan program. Moreover, there seems to be robust enthusiasm in the private sector for the ‘ready for take-off’sanitation market in low-and-middle income countries with low coverage. The continually baffling dilemma is in some ways an age-old one – that of changing mindsets.
How do we influence and change the entrenched behaviour of open defecation and create a compelling case for toilet use? What is the appropriate rationale for applying social and behavioural interventions to get people not just to build toilets but also to use them?
Behavioural economics’ Prospect Theory that models real-world decisions as opposed to optimal decisions might have an answer. The theory posits that people hate losing much more than they like winning (loss aversion), and that the value function for potential losses is much steeper than that for gains (Figure 1). Further, people make decisions based on the potential value of gains and losses rather than the final outcome. This implies that they tend to take a more intense view of losses than gains, even when in effect they arrive at the same final outcome. Therefore, the reference point or the ‘frame’ matters.
Now let’s attempt to apply the theory to the problem of sanitation demand and uptake. The current approach to community-led total sanitation emphasizes creating what behavioural economists would call a ‘gain prospect’ for potential adopters. The logic flows somewhat like this: “You should not defecate in the open, and build and use a toilet because it produces health, convenience, privacy, dignity and safety benefits for you and your community.” The problem with this approach is that potential gains are valued much less than losses, not to mention that health benefits in particular are too far out in the future to influence a significant change in behaviour. It is hard for the consumers to grapple with long-term beneficial impacts of sanitation. Then, of course there is inertia to having done things a certain way. The failure of this approach in selected contexts in India has been confirmed by consumer research. According to a recent consumer survey on sanitation in rural Rajasthan, as many as 9 in 10 of respondents who had a toilet did not use it at all or used it sparingly.
Still staying with the Prospect Theory, the perceived value of toilet use might be increased at least two-fold by presenting the normative practices of open defecation and not using the toilet as losing propositions. The ‘loss prospect’ argues: “You stand to lose immensely by defecating in the open and not using your toilet. There are grave losses in terms of health, privacy, safety and convenience for you and your community. Ergo, you should not defecate in the open and build and use toilets.” This shift in frame from gain utility of sanitation to loss utility of open defecation would likely have a stronger psychological draw for delivering impact on the intractable issue of behaviour change.
It is widely agreed that one of the main missing links in driving real demand for sanitation is the poor traction we have on behaviour change. It not only undermines huge investments but also thwarts excellent policy. Stepping outside the box to apply the insights of psychology to implementing behaviour change is an experiment worth trying. Professor Kahneman would agree!
- Source/complete article & references: Nidi Khurana, End Poverty in South Asia - Jan 15, 2014.
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development, Progress on Sanitation Tagged: hygiene behaviour, sanitation behaviour
The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) with the assistance of a team from Stockholm Environment Institute is happy to announce that the 5th Webinar with Gates Foundation sanitation grantees and SuSanA members will take place on 21 January.
- Topic of the webinar is “Innovation in resource recovery and reuse“
- Date/Time: Tuesday 21 January 2014, 16:30 – 17:15. (CET – Central European Time; use this time converter if you are unsure of the time difference to your location (www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/converter.html)
16:30 Recording starts - Introduction by moderator, short introduction of participants (1 min.). Three presentations and questions (45 min. in total); each presentation is about 5 minutes long and is followed by around 10 minutes of questions (content of presentations: project objectives and timing, methods used, results and lessons learnt so far, way forward and open questions).
(1) - VUNA – Valorisation of Urine Nutrients in Africa.
By Kai Udert, EAWAG, Switzerland – the project is taking place mainly in South Africa. Previous discussion about it on the forum: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/98-nut…-nutrients-in-africa
(2) Structuring of the fecal sludge market for the benefit of poor households in Dakar, Senegal. By Mbaye Mbeguere, Senegal National Sanitation Utility, ONAS, Senegal Previous discussion about it on the forum: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-ena…n-dakar-senegal-onas
(3) Modeling the next generation of sanitation systems. By Luiza Campos, University College London, UK . Previous discussion about it on the forum: forum.susana.org/forum/categories/97-ena…ty-college-london-uk
Concluding remarks (1 min.)
17:15 End of webinar
Attendance at this webinar is open to any SuSanA member or interested people (your attendance will be with or without microphone rights and video, depending on the number of people as well as your bandwidth).
Once recorded, the webinar will be put online on the SuSanA Youtube channel (www.youtube.com/user/susanavideos) after some basic editing – see also links to previous recordings above. During the webinar, people in the audience can also use the chat function of Adobe Connect to ask questions.
There is no need to download any software to attend (simply go to this website: meet26582448.adobeconnect.com/sei/). However, you must obtain the password to enter the room. To obtain the password, please e-mail
- Arno Rosemarin, firstname.lastname@example.org or
- Elisabeth von Muench: email@example.com or
- Dorothee Spuhler ( firstname.lastname@example.org).
Our main aim with these webinars is to have interesting discussions: this is not a one-way street but an exchange in both directions (and even amongst the audience by using the chat function). Try it out if you haven’t been to one of our webinars yet, they are really good fun and inspiring.
The webinars are based on discussions of the projects on the SuSanA Discussion Forum where Sanitation experts and enthusiasts around the world are openly discussing the outcomes and progress of the Gates Foundation’s sanitation science and technology grants since January 2013.
The SuSanA Discussion Forum is hosted by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and has seen an increase in activity since the grant holders were invited to contribute.. So far 68 grantees and their colleagues have presented their projects and results on the SuSanA discussion Forum and engaged in discussions with the sanitation community. Additional information can be found here.
Filed under: Uncategorized
Many thanks to Blake McKinlay from iDE for suggesting the topic for this issue and for sharing an interesting study in Cambodia on determining the impact microfinance has on the uptake of latrines. Other resources include a just-published Water for the People review of its microfinance experiences in seven countries, a SHARE blog post on microfinance issues, and country studies from Ghana, Kenya, among others.
Understanding Willingness to Pay for Sanitary Latrines in Rural Cambodia: Findings from Four Field Experiments of iDE Cambodia’s Sanitation Marketing Program, 2013. N Shah, IDinsight. (Policy Brief) | (Complete Report) |
Given the low willingness to pay for latrines with cash, efforts to sell latrines at market price without any financing mechanism will lead to continued low penetration. The major implication of this study is that offering microfinance loans for latrines will dramatically increase uptake of latrines, while also making distribution significantly cheaper per latrine sold. Large-scale efforts to offer financing packages for latrines should be aggressively pursued in rural Cambodia and have the potential to increase latrine coverage from the current national rural level of 20 percent to 60 percent.
Evaluating the Potential of Microfinance for Sanitation in Tanzania, 2013. S Trémolet, SHARE. (Link)
Microfinance could be used in two main ways to promote access to sustainable sanitation services: by enabling households to spread out the costs of investing in household sanitation solutions (such as latrines and septic tanks), thereby improving the affordability of such investments and by supporting the development of a broad range of sanitation service providers, including masons, communal toilet block operators, or pit latrine emptiers.
Improved Sanitation and its Impact on Children: An Exploration of Sanergy, 2013. H Esper. (Link)
This child impact case study examines the positive impacts of improved sanitation on households and communities, using Sanergy’s experience in Kenya. This for-profit enterprise operates franchises in Nairobi’s slums and provides modular sanitation facilities and entrepreneurial training.
Market-Based Financing: WSP/RWSN Webinar Series, 2013. (Webinar) | (All Webinars) |
This webinar explores experiences with using local banks to provide commercial or semi-commercial loans for the construction, expansion, and major rehabilitation of rural and small town water schemes, using cases from Kenya and Uganda.
Microfinance as a Potential Catalyst for Improved Sanitation: A Synthesis of Water for People’s Sanitation Lending Experiences in Seven Countries, 2013. C Chatterley, Water For People. (Link)
To learn how best to facilitate sanitation microfinance, Water for People has been piloting various lending models with diverse partners in seven countries (Bolivia, Guatemala, India, Malawi, Peru, Rwanda, and Uganda). This report aims to synthesize these experiences to inform general guidance for initiating and improving programs, providing lessons learned and recommendations.
Private and Social Enterprise Engagement in Water and Sanitation for the Poor: A Systematic Review of Current Evidence, 2013. A Gero, Institute for Sustainable Futures. (Link)
This paper reviews five years of literature taking stock and examining the nature and quality of the evidence for private enterprise engagement across both sanitation and water subsectors. It reviews the evidence concerning if and how poor households and communities are being supported and also examines how the aid and development sector currently support small-scale private and social enterprise.
Tapping the Market Opportunities for Domestic Investments in Sanitation for the Poor, 2013. The World Bank. (Link)
The current market for improved on-site sanitation services in the four countries—Bangladesh, Indonesia, Peru, and Tanzania—surveyed is large: supplying new systems and replacing old ones is conservatively estimated to be worth US $300 million a year. But the potential market is much larger: one-time sales of improved sanitation facilities to the 228 million people without access are worth at least US $2.6 billion.
Tapping the Market Opportunities for Domestic Investments in Water for the Poor, 2013. The World Bank. (Link)
The potential market for the domestic private sector is large in the three countries covered in this study. By 2025, about 20 million people in Bangladesh, Benin, and Cambodia are projected to get their water from rural piped water schemes. This market will be worth at least US $90 million a year, up from about US $23 million in 2012.
Assessing the Role of Women in Microfinance for Water Supply and Sanitation Services. WH2O: The Journal of Gender & Water, Mar 2013. A Waldorf. (Link)
Some newer microcredit programs support investments in water and sanitation services. Because women are typically responsible for fetching water, cooking, and cleaning, these newer programs can potentially empower women who normally are excluded from water and sanitation management to have a bigger voice. However, for those benefits to be realized, such programs must be carefully designed to minimize barriers to repayment and the reinforcement of existing gender hierarchies.
Expanding the Frontiers of Microfinance in the Service of the Poor: Experiment with Water and Sanitation. Intl Jnl Acad Res Business and Soc Sci, Aug 2013. S Arfane. (Link)
This paper provides a clear case for extending microfinance to water and sanitation businesses. It adopted diverse approaches to collect data from 60 landlords and tenants as well as a number of potential and existing indigenous entrepreneurs in the water and sanitation sector in Nima, a low income slum area in Accra, Ghana. The study found that not only does microfinance investment in water and sanitation enhance access to, and demand for, water and improved sanitation, it also creates business opportunities for both microfinance institutions and individual entrepreneurs.
The Use of Traditional Microfinance Methods as an Innovative Approach to the Development of Obizi Regional Water Supply Scheme in Aguata, Nigeria. Hydrology, 1(3) 2013. E Ezenwaji, Nnamdi Azikiwe University. (Link)
The aim of this study was to assess the use of traditional microfinance methods as an innovative approach to the development of Obizi Regional Water Supply Scheme in Aguata, Nigeria. An analysis revealed that some communities are embracing the innovation approach, while others are not. Suggestions for improving uptake include: persistent mobilization of community members, better methods of loan distribution, and increased involvement of women in the microfinance process.
Improving Payment for Water Services through Village Savings and Loans Associations, 2013. S Zare, USAID Global Water for Sustainability Program. (Link)
The USAID West Africa-Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene program and local partner PRUDA embarked on joint monitoring of 15 of the 26 village savings and loans associations (VSLAs) in five communities to facilitate local level discussions linking WASH financing and management and VSLAs. The potential of the VSLA as a platform for hygiene and sanitation campaigns, user pay education, gender empowerment and engagement, and technology transfers was hugely welcomed by the groups with many women applauding the adoption of VSLAs in their communities.
Leveraging Community Resources through a Micro-Credit Scheme: Experience from Lake Victoria Water and Sanitation Programme, 2013. A Adongo, SANA Intl.(Presentation)
Microcredit for sanitation is an innovative alternative with significant potential to raise demand for sanitation facilities, increase access, and raise beneficiary contributions toward investment in the sector. However, significant work still has to be done to enhance sustainability with particular focus on developing an achievable repayment model, including provision for a longer repayment period and extending the time period for project incubation.
Microfinance Brings Savings to Villages. USAID’s Global Waters, Mar 2013. S Hoye. (Link)
A popular trend in microfinance is a rudimentary form of banking that brings together community members to save and manage their money collectively. These groups help households improve financial resource management and provide access to short-term loans at reasonable interest rates for investments in projects like high quality water and sanitation services.
Philanthropy Meets the Market. Economist, Dec 2013. (Link)
Innovative ways to tackle the world’s urgent water and sanitation needs will multiply, say Matt Damon and Gary White, co-founders of Water.org.
Sanitation Microfinance: A Solution to the Household Sanitation Cash Trap? 2013. S Trémolet, SHARE. (Link)
SHARE recently published two case studies on sanitation microfinance in India and Tanzania, based on original research by Trémolet Consulting and MicroSave. Here, Sophie Trémolet identifies lessons learned from the research and a way forward for making microfinance part of the solution for reducing the sanitation access gap.
Water and Sanitation Loan Products for MFIs, 2013. MicroSave. (Video)
This video explores the new area of WatSan financing as a potential segment for microfinance institutions (MFIs). MicroSave’s Senior Analyst TVS Ravi highlights the demand for improved water and sanitation across the world and what role microfinance can play in improving access to water and sanitation. The major issues that MFIs have to keep in mind before entering into WatSan financing are also mentioned.
WASHplus Weeklies will highlight topics such as Urban WASH, Indoor Air Pollution, Innovation, Household Water Treatment and Storage, Hand Washing, Integration, and more. If you would like to feature your organization’s materials in upcoming issues, please send them to Dan Campbell, WASHplus Knowledge Resources Specialist, at email@example.com.
Filed under: Economic Benefits Tagged: microfinance
- triggering 3,600 villages and 274 schools in the six districts using Community Led Total Sanitation and School Led Total Sanitation approaches, respectively, and promoting the adoption of improved sanitation and hygiene practices;
- conducting sanitation marketing in support of the triggering;
- developing the capacity of government, civil society organizations and private sector actors in hygiene and sanitation promotion;
- supporting the planning and implementation of sanitation and hygiene activities at district level;
- documenting lessons learnt to help improve programming in sanitation and hygiene.
Filed under: Africa, Progress on Sanitation Tagged: Global Sanitation Fund, Malawi