Geneva, 1 October 2014 – The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) announced today that David Shimkus has joined the Global Sanitation Fund as its new Programme Director, bringing to the Fund over fifteen years of experience in international health and development. He will oversee the Fund’s ongoing efforts to support community-led sanitation programmes in developing countries, including resource mobilization, financial management, capacity building and programme monitoring and evaluation.
“We are thrilled to have David Shimkus at the helm of WSSCC’s Global Sanitation Fund,” said WSSCC Executive Director Chris Williams. “He is a proven manager, leader and facilitator with a deep understanding of empowerment and community development. I am confident that under his leadership, the Fund and its partners will help end open defecation and bring sanitation equity to millions more people in the developing world.”
Mr. Shimkus joins WSSCC from the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS), where he served as Senior Manager of Global Health Partnerships. In that role, Mr. Shimkus provided financial and programmatic oversight for collaborations between UNOPS and major global health organizations. Prior to joining UNOPS, Mr. Shimkus was the Director of Business Development for Pathfinder International, where he led global planning and resource mobilization for HIV/AIDS prevention, care and treatment and maternal and child health.
“I believe that sanitation is the crossroads of development – the focal point where wise investments can have a catalytic impact on all aspects of a community’s growth, from health to education to economic opportunity,” said Shimkus. “I’m looking forward to working with my colleagues at WSSCC and our many partners to build on the Fund’s strong foundation and expand our reach in the years to come.”
About the Global Sanitation Fund
The Global Sanitation Fund is the financing arm of WSSCC, providing targeted investments to sanitation programmes in the world’s most vulnerable communities. It is the first and only international fund devoted solely to sanitation. With a focus on sustainable, community-led initiatives, GSF helps fill the funding gap in countries where sanitation policies are in place but have not been fully implemented due to financial limitations. Since its launch in 2010, the Fund has helped 3.7 million people in 14,000 communities stop defecating in the open. Today, the Fund supports programmes in 11 countries with commitments totaling USD 97 million.
Filed under: Uncategorized
Issue 163 | Sept 26, 2014 | Focus on Sanitation as a Business
This issue highlights some recent reports, conference proceedings, catalogs, and blog posts on sanitation entrepreneurs, sanitation markets, and other sanitation as a business issues. Included are summaries of a conference in Uganda; a Hystra report on household mobile toilets; catalogs of sanitation business opportunities; and blog posts from Sanivation, Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor Enterprises, and others.
Designing the Next Generation of Sanitation Businesses: A Report by Hystra for the Toilet Board Coalition, 2014. J Graf, Hystra. (Link)
This report discusses two models that combine an aspirational value proposition for base of the pyramid (BoP) families with a strong potential for financial sustainability. In rural areas, the authors analyzed projects that activate local rural sanitation markets. In urban areas, they analyzed initiatives servicing mobile home toilets. Based on an in-depth analysis of both the best practices and greatest challenges from a pool of 12 representative projects, the report suggests strategies to overcome challenges to sustainability and scale.
Sanitation Business Catalogue: Let’s Rapidly Scale Sanitation Services to the Poor!2014. APPSANI. (Link)
This catalog contains 27 business propositions of sanitation sector entrepreneurs from all over the world. Together, they offer a variety of services, and all of them are looking to consolidate or expand their business and bring sanitation services to scale for customers at the BoP. This catalog was compiled for the Sanitation Business Matchmaking event at the first BoP World Convention & Expo in Singapore, August 2014.
Ready for Funding: Innovative Sanitation Businesses, 2014. Aqua for All. (Link)
This document was developed to give insights into promising prospects in the sanitation sector in small towns and peri-urban areas in upcoming economies. The sanitation sector offers long term, slow, and stable return on investments. The challenge of the sanitation industry is to access to the right blend of financial products.
Sanitation as a Business: Unclogging the Blockages, 2014. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. (Link)
This report summarizes a two-day conference in Uganda. One of the results was recognition among participants of the importance of business- and market-based approaches as keys to address some of the main barriers for scaling sustainable sanitation solutions. While there is still a long way to go toward universal usage of these approaches, participants were able to get a much richer understanding of the principles and key tenets of how sanitation as a business programming works; many participants intended to go back to their respective environments and apply the lessons they had learned.
What Influences Open Defecation and Latrine Ownership in Rural Households? Findings from a Global Review, 2014. Water and Sanitation Program. (Link)
The most salient factors influencing rural sanitation behaviors that emerged from the review include access to and availability of functioning latrines, sanitation products, and services; latrine product attributes (for example, perceptions of cleanliness and durability); social norms around open defecation; perceptions of latrine affordability; self-efficacy to build latrines; and competing priorities for other household items. The review also identified a number of emotional, social, and physical drivers.
Ending Open Defecation in Rural Tanzania: Which Factors Facilitate Latrine Adoption? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Sept 2014. S Sara. (Link)
Future efforts should consider methods to reduce costs and ease payments for households to upgrade sanitation infrastructure. Messages to increase demand for latrine adoption in rural Tanzania should integrate themes of privacy, safety, prestige, and health. Findings indicate a need for lower cost sanitation options and financing strategies to increase household ability to adopt sanitation facilities.
Why the Conventional Approach Will Never Work: The Six Great Tragedies of Subsidized Latrines, n.d. Water For People. (Link)
Two of the listed tragedies are: No focus on building viable supply chains or pit-emptying services means that even if a householder desired to upgrade or self-finance the building of a latrine, he/she does not have a specialist private sector organization to turn to, and subsidies turn latrine acquisition into a lottery where only the lucky households in the lucky nonprofit organization-selected areas obtain a free latrine.
The eCompendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies, 2014. EAWAG. (Link)
The eCompendium online tool was developed to be used for: system design discussions by engineers and planners; training events and workshops; classical teaching (e.g., environmental engineering); and as a first-hand information source on sanitation systems and technologies for students and practitioners.
Combined Solid Waste Management and Basic Sanitation: Lokossa, Mono Region, Benin, 2014. A DuBois. (Link)
This project constructed 28 household-level EcoSan latrines and two latrines for public/demonstration purposes. Additionally, a compost site was built to reprocess sorted organic waste together with sanitized excreta. The collection of excreta and urine containers is handled by a group of local gardeners that is also responsible for the composting process and for the marketing of the compost. In this way both categories of waste, organic and excreta, are revalued for agricultural purposes, creating a profitable compost market and offering the farmer an ecological alternative to industrial fertilizers.
THE WASTE Diamond Business Approach, 2014. Dutch WASH Alliance. (Link) | (Video)
The Diamond Business Approach is based on an institutionalized business approach that is system-oriented and driven by demand and supply mechanisms. Core stakeholders are therefore the private sector and its clients (households, landlords, municipalities, etc.) and organizations that enable the business environment (e.g., financial institutions and local authorities). Using this approach, WASTE plans to set up sustainable sanitation systems in all seven countries where it works.
Multi-Level Sanitation Governance: Understanding and Overcoming the Challenges in the Sanitation Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2014. N Ekane, Stockholm Environment Institute. (Link)
This paper shows how analysis of multi-level governance, path dependency, and institutional inertia can be used to improve understanding of some of the challenges in the sanitation sector, and discusses approaches that can contribute to improving the sanitation situation in a sustainable way. In addition, the paper asserts that demand-driven strategies and private sector involvement in the sanitation sector is paramount for establishing new sanitation paradigms and socio-technical regimes.
Part I: How an Ambitious Group of Innovators are Catalyzing Change in the Toilet Business. New Global Citizen, Mar 2014. J Adley. (Link)
This is Part I in a three-part series about innovations in global sanitation, following the Unclogging Blockages in Sanitation conference in Kampala, Uganda, with a report from Masters Without Borders.
Part II: How an Ambitious Group of Innovators are Catalyzing Change in the Toilet Business. New Global Citizen, Mar 2014. J Adley. (Link)
This is part two in a three-part series about innovations in global sanitation, which describes how Unilever, IDEO, and Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor went to Ghana to understand the market needs and design a toilet and business model that was accessible to residents of low-income urban areas. The pilot program started with 20 families, which quickly grew to 100.
Part III: How an Ambitious Group of Innovators are Catalyzing Change in the Toilet Business. New Global Citizen, Apr 2014. J Adley. (Link)
Sanivation rents toilets to families in the villages surrounding Lake Naivasha; they pay a weekly fee for the waste removal. Sanivation’s toilets are both mobile and urine-diverting, meaning urine is collected in a separate container from feces.
World Toilet Organization Founder on Turning Poop Culture into Pop Culture. The Guardian, Aug 2014. (Link)
Jack Sim shares some thoughts on the importance of sanitation in BoP markets. He describes the World Toilet Organization’s SaniShop social franchise, which trains local populations to start small $2,000 factories that produce very affordable latrines and shelters, and sell them to the local community.
The Next Great Market Opportunity: Sanitation for India’s Poor. GatesNotes, March 2014. B Gates. (Link)
Just like any other sector, there is a value chain in sanitation. And all across this value chain—from the design of next-generation toilets that don’t require a sewer connection to the development of new markets for the collection and treatment of waste—there is amazing business potential.
Cooking with Gas from Fermented Waste: Entrepreneurs Empowering Sanitation.Forbes, April 2014. F Dawson. (Link)
One Ethiopian project demonstrates the commercial potential of sanitation—and its wider economic as well as societal impact. EOC, the development arm of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, in partnership with WaterAid, an international charity improving access to safe water, hygiene, and sanitation, have set up a biogas production facility that can be sold to individual families to provide a safe method of sanitation that can also produce gas for cooking and light.
Entrepreneurial Improvements to Water and Sanitation Could Cause $480B Swing in Global Economy. Forbes, April 2014. F Dawson. (Link)
In some parts of the developing world, it is cholera that makes the water almost as undrinkable as that of the mariner’s sea. Solving the issues that cause this could be worth as much as $480 billion to the global economy, according to WaterAid.
Bringing Squat Toilets+Sanitation Service to Where It Is Needed: Dense Urban Environments, 2014. Sanivation. (Link) | (Website)
Sanivation is contracted by a CDC Innovation Fund award to design and implement a new service model approach to sanitation for the Kakuma Refugee Camp. The pilot system will provide Somali and Dinka refugees with a household toilet along with a waste collection service that treats human waste and converts it into materials to make burnable briquettes.
Model Behavior: 20 Business Model Innovations for Sustainability, 2014. SustainAbility. (Link)
Model Behavior identifies 20 distinct business models falling into five categories, offering a closer look at what’s occurring in each of these models to produce more sustainable outcomes.
A Value Proposition: Resource Recovery from Faecal Sludge: Can It Be the Driver for Improved Sanitation? Resources, Conservation and Recycling, May 2014. S Dienera.(Link)
This study evaluated the potential for resource recovery from innovative fecal sludge treatment processes to generate a proﬁt that could help sustain the sanitation service chain.
Planning & Design of Sanitation Systems and Technologies, Oct. 13 – Nov 16, 2014. EAWAG. (Link)
In this course participants will learn how to plan for affordable and context-specific sanitation solutions using some state-of-the-art sector planning tools and frameworks such as Sanitation 21, Community-Led Urban Environmental Sanitation (CLUES) and the Sanitation Systems Approach. By using exercises and concrete examples, participants will learn how to choose appropriate sanitation systems and technologies for a variety of urban contexts.
Sustainable Sanitation Alliance—Sanitation as a Business and Public Awareness Working Group. (Link)
Filed under: Economic Benefits Tagged: entrepreneurs, Sanitation as a business
Ending Open Defecation in Rural Tanzania: Which Factors Facilitate Latrine Adoption? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2014, 11(9), 9854-9870; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909854
Authors: Stephen Sara and Jay Graham. Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health and Health Services, George Washington University, 2100 M St., NW Suite 200, Washington, DC 20037, USA
Diarrheal diseases account for 7% of deaths in children under five years of age in Tanzania. Improving sanitation is an essential step towards reducing these deaths. This secondary analysis examined rural Tanzanian households’ sanitation behaviors and attitudes in order to identify barriers and drivers to latrine adoption. The analysis was conducted using results from a cross-sectional study of 1000 households in five rural districts of Tanzania. Motivating factors, perceptions, and constraints surrounding open defecation and latrine adoption were assessed using behavioral change theory.
Results showed a significant association between use of improved sanitation and satisfaction with current sanitation facility (OR: 5.91; CI: 2.95–11.85; p = 0.008). Livestock-keeping was strongly associated with practicing open defecation (OR: 0.22; CI 0.063–0.75; p < 0.001). Of the 93 total households that practiced open defecation, 79 (85%) were dissatisfied with the practice, 62 (67%) had plans to build a latrine and 17 (18%) had started saving for a latrine. Among households that planned to build a latrine, health was the primary reason stated (60%).
The inability to pay for upgrading sanitation infrastructure was commonly reported among the households. Future efforts should consider methods to reduce costs and ease payments for households to upgrade sanitation infrastructure. Messages to increase demand for latrine adoption in rural Tanzania should integrate themes of privacy, safety, prestige and health. Findings indicate a need for lower cost sanitation options and financing strategies to increase household ability to adopt sanitation facilities.
Filed under: Uncategorized
Validity of Rapid Measures of Handwashing Behavior: An Analysis of Data from Multiple Impact Evaluations
Validity of Rapid Measures of Handwashing Behavior: An Analysis of Data from Multiple Impact Evaluations in the Global Scaling Up
Handwashing Project, 2014. Water and Sanitation Program.
Authors: Pavani K. Ram, Michelle W. Sahli, Benjamin Arnold, John M. Colford, Claire Chase, Bertha Briceño, Alexandra Orsola-Vidal, and Paul Gertler
This multicountry analysis has shown that observation of handwashing materials at the places where people wash hands, at the times most necessary for washing (after fecal contact and before food preparation), is a valid measure of handwashing with soap in multiple cultural and geographic contexts. There continues to be an overarching need for developing valid measures of handwashing behavior that can be collected in an efficient and inexpensive fashion. The structured observation data indicating low rates of soap use for handwashing at times of pathogen transmission reinforce the global imperative to improve handwashing behavior for prevention of the leading causes of death in young children.
Filed under: Hygiene Promotion Tagged: handwashing
The appropriate and adequate management of faecal sludge deriving from onsite technologies is imperative for the protection of human and environmental health. This is the first book dedicated to faecal sludge management. It compiles the current state of knowledge of this rapidly evolving field, and presents an integrated approach that includes technology, management and planning. It addresses the planning and organization of the entire faecal sludge management service chain, from the collection and transport of sludge and treatment options, to the final enduse or disposal of treated sludge. In addition to providing fundamentals and an overview of technologies, the book goes into details of operational, institutional and financial aspects, and provides guidance on how to plan a city-level faecal sludge management project with the involvement of all the stakeholders.
- Chapter 1: The global situation
- Chapter 2: Faecal Sludge Quantification, Characterisation and Treatment Objectives
- Chapter 3: Treatment Mechanisms
- Chapter 4: Methods and Means for Collection and Transport of Faecal Sludge
- Chapter 5: Overview of Treatment Technologies
- Chapter 6: Settling-Thickening Tanks
- Chapter 7: Unplanted Drying Beds
- Chapter 8: Planted Drying Beds
- Chapter 9: Co-treatment of Faecal Sludge in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants
- Chapter 10: Enduse of Treatment Products
- Chapter 11: Operation, Maintenance and Monitoring of Faecal Sludge Treatment Plant
- Chapter 12: Institutional Frameworks for Faecal Sludge Management
- Chapter 13: Financial Transfers and Responsibility in Faecal Sludge Management Chains
- Chapter 14: Assessment of the Initial Situation
- Chapter 15: Stakeholder Analysis
- Chapter 16: Stakeholder Engagement
- Chapter 17: Planning Integrated Faecal Sludge Management Systems
- Chapter 18: The Way Forward
Short course The three-week short course addresses a holistic approach on FSM. There will be a focus on technology; however, technology cannot be seen separately from planning and management aspects; therefore, non-technical aspects will also be addressed in this module. The next course will start on 30 June 2014. Go to the course page. Pro-poor sanitation innovations UNESCO-IHE and partners received an 8 million dollar grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The grant will be used to finance a 5-year capacity building and research project to stimulate local innovation on sanitation for the urban poor in sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. Read more here about the project.
Filed under: Wastewater Management Tagged: faecal sludge management
Issue 162 | Sept 19, 2014 | Focus on WASH & Human Rights
This issue highlights the just-published handbook on WASH and human rights by Catarina de Albuquerque, the UN special rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation. Also included are studies from the UNC Water Institute; Human Rights Watch; fact sheets and position statements from the UN and UNICEF; country reports from the DRC, Haiti, and South Africa; and links to relevant websites.
Realising the Human Rights to Water and Sanitation: A Handbook, 2014. C de Albuquerque. (Link)
This handbook is the product of six years of work by the first UN special rapporteur on the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation. It explains the meaning and legal obligations that arise from these rights, translating the often complex technical and legal language into accessible information. The target audiences for this handbook are governments at all levels, donors, and national regulatory bodies. It provides information that will also be useful to other local, regional, and international stakeholders, including civil society, service providers, and human rights organizations.
Fact Sheet on the Right to Water, n.d. United Nations. | Arabic | English | French |Spanish
The roots of the current water and sanitation crisis can be traced to poverty, inequality, and unequal power relationships, and it is exacerbated by social and environmental challenges: accelerating urbanization, climate change, and increasing pollution and depletion of water resources. To address this crisis, the international community has increasingly recognized that access to safe drinking water and sanitation must be considered within a human rights framework.
Translating the Human Right to Water and Sanitation into Public Policy Reform.Science and Engineering Ethics, Jan 2014. B Meier. (Link)
The development of a human right to water and sanitation under international law has created an imperative to implement human rights in water and sanitation policy. Through 43 interviews with informants in international institutions, national governments, and NGOs, this research examines interpretations of this new human right on global governance, national policy, and local practice.
Examining the Practice of Developing Human Rights Indicators to Facilitate Accountability for the Human Right to Water and Sanitation. Journal of Human Rights Practice, Mar 2014. B Meier. (Link)
This policy note focuses on efforts to develop indicators for state reporting to human rights treaty bodies. It proposes an indicator development model as a basis for developing indicators that reflect the attributes of the right to water and sanitation, enlist key stakeholders in the policy making process, and have political relevance for state reporting.
Equity in Water and Sanitation: Developing an Index to Measure Progressive Realization of the Human Right. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Jan 2013. J Luh. (Link)
The authors developed an index to measure progressive realization of the human right to water and sanitation. While in this study they demonstrate its application to the nondiscrimination and equality component for water, the conceptual approach of the index can be used for all the different components of the human right.
Implementing an Evolving Human Right through Water and Sanitation Policy. Water Policy, Nov 2013. B Meier. (Link)
Examining the opportunities created by this UN resolution, this article analyzes the implementation of the human right to water and sanitation through global water governance, national water policy, and water and sanitation outcomes. While obstacles remain at each step in the implementation of this right, the authors conclude that the UN resolution could have lasting effects on public health through rights-based water and sanitation policy.
Cleaning Human Waste: “Manual Scavenging,” Caste, and Discrimination in India, 2014. Human Rights Watch. (Link)
This report documents the coercive nature of manual scavenging. Across India, castes that work as “manual scavengers” collect human excrement on a daily basis, and carry it away in cane baskets for disposal. Women from this caste usually clean dry toilets in homes, while men do the more physically demanding cleaning of sewers and septic tanks.
Menstrual Hygiene Day Links Periods and Human Rights, 2014. A Klasing, Human Rights Watch. (Link)
Handling periods (or “menstrual hygiene management” as experts call it) isn’t the first thing one might associate with human rights. Yet the link between realization of rights for women and girls and menstrual hygiene management could not be clearer.
The Rights to Safe Water and Sanitation. 2014. UNICEF. (Link)
UNICEF supports realization of the right to water and sanitation through an equity-focused approach.
The Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability and Quality (AAAQ) Framework and the Right to Water, 2014. M Jensen, Danish Institute for Human Rights. (Link)
This issue paper explores a possible generic methodology for the operationalization of rights, exemplified through the right to water. The key aims of this methodology are: to identify the core normative dimensions of the right in terms of the criteria of availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality (AAAQ) and to develop a framework on the basis of the AAAQ criteria that consists of specific standards, generic indicators, and generic benchmarks.
Global Water Scarcity: Health, Human Rights and Environmental Challenges, 2014. R Pink. (Video)
Dr. Ross Michael Pink is a co-founder of Global Water Rights and has designed and taught courses on water rights and development. His presentation at the University of Toronto focuses on global water scarcity with case studies from India, Indonesia, Mali, and Tibet.
The Right to Sanitation: Time to Delink from the Right to Water. Human Rights Quarterly, Aug 2014. K Ellis. (Abstract)
Within the human rights arena, water and sanitation are very often presented as linked together. This article examines the historical roots of this linkage as well as its manifestation at both the international and domestic level in countries that have formally recognized a right to water and sanitation. The analysis leads to a conclusion that a continuation of the linkage is not historically warranted, nor does it offer clear advantages for realization of a right to water or a right to sanitation.
The Free Flow Principles: Freedom of Expression and Rights to Water and Sanitation, 2014. ARTICLE 19. (Link)
The right to freedom of expression is a fundamental human right, necessary for individual self-fulfillment, self-realization, and autonomy and for the functioning of a democratic form of government. Freedom of expression is key to the success of any efforts that aim at the realization of the rights to water and sanitation.
Can Water Be a Human Right? Appeal, 19(131) 2014. K Snell. (Link)
The human right to water was recognized in the 2002 CESCR General Comment 15 as well as in a 2010 UN General Assembly Declaration. While a human right to water may appear attractive as a means of preventing waterborne disease and ensuring adequate supply of water for basic domestic needs, many questions are raised when one considers how a declaration of the right translates into an actual legal entitlement.
DRC – In Search of Clean Water: Human Rights and the Mining Industry in Katanga, DRC, 2014. A Montejano. (Link)
This report begins by setting out the context in the Katanga Province and providing an overview of the human right to water. It then assesses, firstly, whether mining companies comply with the national mining regulations, stressing also the importance of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights and taking the concept of human rights due diligence as a benchmark; secondly, the performance of the DRC vis-a-vis its international human rights obligations, emphasizing the participation of state-owned companies in the mining sector; and lastly, the role of the home states of the polluting companies and their extraterritorial obligations regarding the protection of the human right to water in the DRC.
Haiti – Cholera as a Grave Violation of the Right to Water in Haiti, 2014. S Dávila-Ruhaak. (Link)
This report on cholera in Haiti provides a case study of strategies used and difficulties faced by victims seeking accountability and remedies for right-to-water violations perpetrated by nonstate actors.
South Africa – Report on the Right to Access Sufficient Water and Decent Sanitation in South Africa, 2014. South African Human Rights Commission. (Link)
This report provides an overview of the state of access to water and sanitation in South Africa. It provides the framework for the commission’s work on water and sanitation by looking at the status quo. It gives an overview of the impact that a lack of access to water and sanitation can have one one’s life and dignity and one’s ability to access other human rights. The section ends with an analysis of the state of national and provincial access to water and sanitation in the country.
USA – United Nations Says Turning Off Poor Detroiters’ Water Violates Human Rights. Huffington Post, June 2014. K Abbey-Lambertz. (Link)
Detroit has been shutting off water to customers who reportedly can’t afford to pay their bills, and United Nations experts said Wednesday it’s a violation of human rights. The UN responded after a coalition of activist groups submitted a report to its Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner detailing water shutoffs and extreme consequences for families in the city who can’t afford to pay their bills and have had to go without water.
UN Special Rapporteur on the Human Right to Water and Sanitation – (Link)
The UN Human Rights Council in March 2008 initially established the mandate of the special rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation as the independent expert on the issue of human rights obligations related to access to safe drinking water and sanitation. Catarina de Albuquerque took up the mandate in November 2008. As special rapporteur, Ms. de Albuquerque carries out thematic research, undertakes country missions, and works with development practitioners on the implementation of the rights to water and sanitation.
Rights to Water and Sanitation – (Link)
Use this site to find out more about why water and sanitation as human rights are key to achieving universal access to safe water and sanitation. Also, find out about what progress has been made in getting the rights recognized and what impact the implementation of the right has made so far.
United Nations – The Human Right to Water and Sanitation. (Link)
Links to UN resolutions and reports on WASH and human rights.
Filed under: Dignity and Social Development Tagged: human rights
Factors Associated With Pupil Toilet Use in Kenyan Primary Schools. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2014, 11(9), 9694-9711; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909694
Joshua V. Garn, Bethany A. Caruso, et al.
The purpose of this study was to quantify how school sanitation conditions are associated with pupils’ use of sanitation facilities. We conducted a longitudinal assessment in 60 primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya, using structured observations to measure facility conditions and pupils’ use at specific facilities. We used multivariable mixed regression models to characterize how pupil to toilet ratio was associated with toilet use at the school-level and also how facility conditions were associated with pupils’ use at specific facilities.
We found a piecewise linear relationship between decreasing pupil to toilet ratio and increasing pupil toilet use (p < 0.01). Our data also revealed significant associations between toilet use and newer facility age (p < 0.01), facility type (p < 0.01), and the number of toilets in a facility (p < 0.01). We found some evidence suggesting facility dirtiness may deter girls from use (p = 0.06), but not boys (p = 0.98).
Our study is the first to rigorously quantify many of these relationships, and provides insight into the complexity of factors affecting pupil toilet use patterns, potentially leading to a better allocation of resources for school sanitation, and to improved health and educational outcomes for children.
Filed under: Africa, Sanitary Facilities Tagged: Kenya, toilet use, WASH in schools
USAID Deliver Project – Guide to Health Care Waste Management for the Community Health Worker, 2014. (In English and French)
The USAID | DELIVER PROJECT has published a French language version of the Guide to Health Care Waste Management for the Community Health Worker. This illustrated guide is now available in French and English.
This publication provides practical guidance for community health workers on how to safely handle and dispose of hazardous waste. It describes the basic principles of waste management and offers solutions for managing the waste generated from everyday activities carried out in the community.
- Download the Guide to Health Care Waste Management for the Community Health Worker in English or French.
- Learn more about health care waste management
Filed under: Sanitary Facilities Tagged: health care wastes
Designing the next generation of sanitation businesses: a report by HYSTRA for the Toilet Board Coalition, 2014.
Fortunately, a number of market-based models have emerged in both rural and urban areas to address the sanitation crisis. They all serve the Base of the Pyramid in a sustainable manner by offering improved solutions, at a price that the poor are willing and able to pay. In this Report, we analyze two models that combine an aspirational value proposition for low-income families and a strong potential for financial sustainability: projects that facilitate the creation of a local, sanitation market in rural areas and enterprises servicing home mobile toilets in urban areas.
Based on an in-depth analysis of 12 projects representative of these two models, the Report suggests strategies to overcome challenges to sustainability and scale. Finally, the Report explores how these models would benefit from corporate and industrial expertise and resources, opening up opportunities for large corporations to contribute to solving the sanitation crisis.
Filed under: Publications Tagged: entrepreneurs, Hystra, Sanitation as a business
Video: 7 journalists win prestigious media awards for excellence in reporting on critical water, sanitation and hygiene issues
Filed under: Uncategorized
Published on Sep 12, 2014 -“Behind The Data: The People Who Make Research Happen” is a short documentary, highlighting the work that was done in rural communities by the people who were instrumental in collecting and recording data for a sanitation-based research project. We aim to show the fundamental value of each person’s role in achieving the ultimate research objectives.
Filed under: Research Tagged: data collection, Sandec
If you could start from scratch and design a new WASH sustainability tool, what would it look like?
Participants from the 2014 WASH Sustainability Forum share their ideas on the principles of their ideal WASH sustainability tool.
The 2014 WASH Sustainability Forum brought together over 150 participants from nearly 30 countries to discuss concrete approaches to Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Sustainability. The Forum took place in Amsterdam, on 30 June and 1 July. 2014. More info: http://www.ircwash.org/news/5th-wash-…and #WASH2014
With inputs from:
Charles Yeboah (Safe Water Network), Barbara Evans (University of Leeds), Chaitaili Chattopadhyah (WSSCC), Prakhar Goel (Control Union), Joanne McGriff (Center for Global Safe Water, Emory University), Jose Gesti Canuto (UNICEF), Guy Norman (WSUP), Julia Rosenbaum (USAID/WASHplus), Naabiah Ofosuh-Amaah (Global Environment & Technology Foundation).
Interview: Cor Dietvorst.
Camera: Thomas Hurkxkens
Filed under: Uncategorized
Issue 160 | Sept 5, 2014 | Focus on WASH & Nutrition
This issue contains some of the most recent studies on stunting, open defecation, nutritional interventions, and other WASH and nutrition issues. Recent reports from the World Bank Water and Sanitation Program discuss the impacts of improved sanitation on child growth in Vietnam and Lao PDR. Training materials include the new Global Handwashing Day guide from the Global Public-Private Partnership on Handwashing and a WASHplus infographic on tippy taps.
Left, Right, and Toilets. Ideas for India, Aug 2014. D Spears. (Link)
Eliminating open defecation in India is a policy priority. This column contends that successful strategies for reducing open defecation may not fit policy stereotypes of the left or the right. While rural sanitation policy in states where this practice is most concentrated has been focused on latrine construction, promotion of latrine use is what will make a difference.
What Do Toilets Have To Do with Nutrition? More Than You Might Think. IFPRI Blog, July 2014. L Haddad. (Link)
A new working paper from the Institute of Development Studies has looked at data from 116 low- and middle-income countries from 1970 to 2012. It found that access to safe water (20 percent) and improved sanitation (15 percent) explained 35 percent of the variation in stunting rates across countries and time periods. This reflects two things: the fact that water and sanitation are strongly linked to stunting reduction, and that both water and sanitation coverage have increased strongly in the past four decades.
JOURNAL ARTICLES BY PUBLICATION DATE
The Effect of India’s Total Sanitation Campaign on Defecation Behaviors and Child Health in Rural Madhya Pradesh: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. PLoS Medicine, Aug 2014. R Sumeet. (Link)
The objective of this study is to measure the effect of the Total Sanitation Campaign implemented with capacity building support from The World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Program in Madhya Pradesh on availability of individual household latrines (IHLs), defecation behaviors, and child health (diarrhea, highly credible gastrointestinal illness [HCGI], parasitic infections, anemia, and growth). The intervention led to modest increases in availability of IHLs and even more modest reductions in open defecation. These improvements were insufficient to improve child health outcomes. The results underscore the difficulty of achieving adequately large improvements in sanitation levels to deliver expected health benefits within large-scale rural sanitation programs.
Noncommunicable Diseases in HIV Infection in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Gastrointestinal, Hepatic, and Nutritional Aspects. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Sep 2014. P Kelly. (Full-text)
The purpose of this review is to outline the interaction between HIV and noncommunicable diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and nutritional disorders in low- and middle-income countries, and to identify research priorities. HIV interacts strongly with environmental enteropathy, exacerbating malabsorption of nutrients and drugs. HIV and nutritional care need to be better integrated, but many questions on how best to do this remain unanswered.
An Evolving Perspective about the Origins of Childhood Undernutrition and Nutritional Interventions that Includes the Gut Microbiome. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Aug 2014. T Ahmed. (Link)
This paper summarizes work on mechanisms underlying the varied manifestations of childhood undernutrition and discusses current gaps in knowledge and challenges to our understanding of undernutrition and infection/immunity throughout the human life cycle, focusing on early childhood growth. It proposes a series of basic and clinical studies to address this global health challenge.
Early Childhood Diarrhoeal Diseases and Cognition: Are We Missing the Rest of the Iceberg? Paediatrics and International Child Health, Aug 2014. J MacIntyre. (Abstract)
This paper reviews the burden of early childhood diarrheal diseases globally and the emerging evidence of their relationship with global disparities in neurocognitive development. The strength of evidence indicating that the severe childhood diarrheal burden may be implicated in cognitive impairment of children from low- and middle-income countries is discussed. Findings suggest that greater investment in multi-site, longitudinal enteric infection studies that assess long-term repercussions are warranted.
Climate Change, Crop Production and Child Under Nutrition in Ethiopia: A Longitudinal Panel Study. BMC Public Health, Aug 2014. S Hagos. (Link)
The amount and distribution of rainfall and temperature influence household food availability, thus increasing the risk of child undernutrition. However, few studies examined the local spatial variability and the impact of temperature and rainfall on child undernutrition at a smaller scale. We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of weather variables on child undernutrition and the variations in effects across the three agro-ecologies of Ethiopia.
Addressing Chronic Malnutrition through Multi-Sectoral, Sustainable Approaches: A Review of the Causes and Consequences. Frontiers in Nutrition, Aug 2014. K Reinhardt.(Link)
The objective of this paper is to review current knowledge on the causes and consequences of chronic malnutrition and their relationship with multiple sectors. Understanding the causes includes approaching chronic malnutrition from the basic, underlying, and immediate levels. The causes reach from macro-level environmental influences to specific micronutrient intake.
Why Worry About the Politics of Childhood Undernutrition? World Development, Vol. 64 2014. N Nisbett. (Link)
Undernutrition affects over 2 billion people, but most of the global policy focus has been on technical solutions rather than on understanding nutrition politics. This paper reviews existing literature on nutrition politics and policy. It identifies a number of recurring themes surrounding knowledge, politics, and capacities.
Undernutrition’s Blind Spot: A Review of Fecally Transmitted Infections in India.Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, July 2014. R Chambers.(Abstract)
With relevance to India and more widely, this review article examines links between fecally transmitted infections (FTIs) and undernutrition, presents a new framework for understanding the relative nutritional significance of FTIs, and draws practical implications for professionals and for future research.
Global Handwashing Day Planner’s Guide: 3rd Edition, 2014. PPPHW. (Link)
In addition to background information, the top five facts about hand washing you should know, and insights from the latest in hand washing research, this newly revised Planner’s Guide features: detailed celebration ideas designed to help religious organizations, schools, health care centers, and more plan effective messaging and events, and an event checklist that helps planners organize and make sure their event planning is on track.
How to Make Other Types of Tippy Taps, 2014. WASHplus. (Link)
This card has instructions on how to make tippy taps from mineral water bottles, tin cans, gourds, and jerry cans.
Investing in the Next Generation: Children Grow Taller, and Smarter, in Rural, Mountainous Villages of Vietnam Where Community Members Use Improved Sanitation, 2014. Water and Sanitation Program. (Link)
The use of unimproved latrines in rural villages in mountainous regions of Vietnam leads to 5-year-old children being 3.7 cm shorter than healthy children living in villages where everybody practices improved sanitation. This difference in height is irreversible and matters a great deal for a child’s cognitive development and future productive potential. A child remains at risk of stunting if community members use unimproved sanitation facilities, even when the child’s family uses improved latrines. Community-wide sanitation interventions should be considered for integration into nutrition and poverty programs to support stunting prevention.
Investing in the Next Generation: Children Grow Taller, and Smarter, in Rural Villages of Lao PDR Where All Community Members Use Improved Sanitation, 2014. Water and Sanitation Program. (Link)
This brief summarizes research examining whether open defecation and unimproved sanitation in a rural community are related to stunted children of different age groups. Among the key findings: what happens today in terms of sanitation behaviors will affect the country’s future. Improving sanitation in rural communities of Lao PDR is thus a development priority that requires resources for a National Rural Sanitation Program.
Maharashtra’s Child Stunting Declines: What is Driving Them? Findings of a Multidisciplinary Analysis, 2014. L Haddad, Institute of Development Studies. (Link)
Between 2006 and 2012, Maharashtra’s stunting rate among children under 2 years of age was reported to decline by 15 percentage points—one of the fastest declines in stunting seen anywhere at any time. This was seemingly more remarkable because it occurred within a context where Indian stunting levels nationally are regularly characterized as stuck or static.
What Are the Factors Enabling and Constraining Effective Leaders in Nutrition? A Four Country Study, 2014. N Nisbett, Institute of Development Studies. (Link)
This study of individuals identified as influential within the nutrition sector in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kenya, and India examines why particular individuals champion nutrition policy, and how they operate in the wider policy and political environments of their countries.
SQUAT Survey: Sanitation Quality, Use, Access and Trends, 2014. RICE Institute.(Link)
SQUAT is a quantitative survey that was conducted in rural areas of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and Bihar. In each state, researchers visited two or three districts that had changes in household open defecation between the 2001 and 2011 censuses that were similar to the state as a whole. Within districts, villages were randomly selected, and within villages, they used an in-field randomization procedure to select households. The researchers interviewed 3,235 adults about their defecation practices and views on latrines and latrine use, and collected individual-level latrine use data for 22,787 household members.
Connecting Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene with Fresh Water Conservation and Climate Resilience: The Need to Facilitate Integration in Development Assistance, 2014. E Shope, National Resources Defense Council. (Link)
Currently, the development sector all too often addresses WASH, climate resilience, and fresh water conservation as separate issues. Fortunately, though, awareness about the importance of integrated efforts to solve these challenges in development projects is increasing. USAID has publicly spoken about and financially supported some efforts to promote integrated solutions for addressing WASH, conservation, and climate.
Care Groups—An Effective Community-Based Delivery Strategy for Improving Reproductive, Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health in High-Mortality, Resource-Constrained Settings, 2014. H Perry. (Link)
Care Groups are an innovation in reproductive, maternal, neonatal, and child health programming that is gaining increasing recognition because of their effectiveness in promoting behavior change and expanding population coverage of key interventions. This paper provides policy makers and donors with an introduction to the Care Group approach and an overview of the evidence of their effectiveness.
Filed under: Sanitation and Health Tagged: WASH nutrition integration
Seven journalists win prestigious media awards for excellence in reporting on critical water, sanitation and hygiene issues
Geneva/Stockholm, 5 September 2014 – Seven journalists were named today as winners of the “2014 WASH Media Awards” competition for their excellence in reporting on water, sanitation and hygiene-related (WASH) issues.
The journalists, their winning entries, and the award categories are:
- Marcelo Leite (Brazil): “The Battle of Belo Monte” (Category: Water and Energy)
- Natasha Khan (Canada) and Ketaki Gokhale (USA) “No Menstrual Hygiene For Indian Women Holds Economy Back” (Category: Equity and Inclusion in Water, Sanitation and Hygiene)
- Seun Aikoye (Nigeria): “Lagosians shun public toilets as open defecation continues” (Category: Ending Open Defecation)
- Mbali Chiya (South Africa): “Human Rights to Water and Sanitation” (Category: The Human Right to Water and Sanitation)
- Umaru Sanda Amadu (Ghana): “Water Wahala” (Category: WASH in the Future: The Post-2015 Development Agenda)
- Dilrukshi Handunnetti (Sri Lanka): “Sri Lankan Girls Miss out on Sanitation Gains” (Category: Monitoring WASH Commitments)
The winning entries can be viewed here: http://www.wsscc.org/media/wash-media-awards/2012-2014. A high resolution photograph and summary video can also be found there or at the World Water Week page.
The winners received their awards today during a ceremony at the closing plenary session of the annual World Water Week in Stockholm. In Stockholm this week, the journalists shared their experiences with leading water, sanitation, environment and development experts. The week concluded with a 2014 Stockholm Statement on Water, a collection of films and papers calling for a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) on Water.
Journalists are key partners for sanitation, hygiene and water sector professionals in their awareness raising, advocacy and behaviour change work. Journalists play a central role in the highlighting of water and gender related issues and positioning of women as environmental leaders. They greatly contribute to bringing in the spotlight the too often neglected issues of the necessity of toilets and hand washing for a dignified, safe and healthy life for billions of people.
The biannual WASH Media Awards competition is sponsored by the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC, www.wsscc.org) and the Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI, www.siwi.org). More than 100 entries from 30 countries were evaluated by a Mr. Mark Tran, a notable international correspondent for The Guardian, UK.
Filed under: Uncategorized
The interactive version of the Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies (eCompendium) is now online!
The eCompendium is the digital version of the popular and well-know reference-manual Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies published by Eawag/Sandec, WSSCC and IWA. It is a interactive planning tool designed for engineers and planners to facilitate decision-making on sanitation systems and technologies in meetings and workshops. The main added value to the eCompendium is that the user is guided throughout the entire sanitation-chain by the aid of interactive links. In order to select suitable technologies, a customised filter can be applied based on the desired input or output products of technologies.
It is based on the second edition of the Compendium, which was recently published by Eawag/Sandec, WSSCC and IWA. It comprises the same content as the print version, plus additional links to references, further readings and cross-references to the Sustainable Sanitation and Water Management (SSWM) Toolbox at your fingertips. All Technology Info Sheets are now stored in the SSWM database and can be directly linked with previously uploaded factsheets, further readings, training materials, weblinks, videos and – yes, even ready-made powerpoint presentations from the SSWM repository!
The eCompendium has been designed and implemented by the SSWM team on behalf of Sandec/Eawag. It is one of a series of specific topic entry pages (STEPs) with the aim of making the SSWM content more accessible for particular target groups of SSWM partners and contributors.
For the SSWM Team,
Filed under: Multimedia, Technology Tagged: Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies
Perhaps one of the more ignored or misunderstood elements of water poverty by the general population and even the charitable sector is sanitation services. When you think about providing clean water, you conjure images of clear drinking water pouring out of a tap or buckets of well water used to water crops and serve livestock.
But then there’s the other stuff—the stuff that is not as pretty to think about or even to deal with, but is just as important—like unclogging toilets, and building latrines, and providing sanitary napkin containers and services for female students. That’s all sanitation.
The first Unclogging the Blockages conference organised by IRC, PSI, Water for People and WSUP Enterprises, took place on February 18-20, 2014, Kampala, Uganda. More than 170 people from in and out of the sector and around the world came together to explore the various challenges for sanitation as a business (SAAB) and began working on short and long-term solutions.
Participants identified seven key components to SAAB: (1) public sector; (2) business models; (3) finance; (4) technology; (5) demand creation and behaviour change; (6) monitoring; and (7) intersectoral links.
For each component participants plotted out potential outcomes and ways forward based on their ideas and a 30-day challenge, for example:
• Blockage: lack of models that are pro-poor inclusive; lack of understanding of technology
• Desired outcome: Consumer understanding/happiness: Families say, “The toilet is my favorite part of the house.”
• 30-Day Challenge: Know your customers deeply for better service and success. —Advocacy through creative formats, get to the point and make it attractive, prove we have results.
The full set of action plans with a detailed breakdown by tasks and groups responsible for each of the seven themes is in the Unclogging the Blockages report. The Conference report and an accompanying factsheet are available at: www.ircwash.org/resources/unclogging-blockages-sanitation-business
A full set of conference materials including Powerpoint presentations can be found on the SuSanA website at: www.susana.org/en/events/past-event-pages/details/8
Filed under: Africa, Campaigns and Events, Economic Benefits, Publications Tagged: Sanitation as a business, Unclogging the Blockages in Sanitation
Together, they offer a variety of services and all of them are looking to consolidate or expand their business, and bring sanitation services to scale for customers at the Base of the Pyramid.
This catalogue was produced for the Sanitation Business Matchmaking event at the first World BoP Convention & Expo in Singapore, 28-30 of August 2014.
Each individual business sheet in this catalogue describes what the entrepreneur offers and what he is looking for.
Download the catalogue at:
Filed under: Publications, Sanitary Facilities, Wastewater Management Tagged: Base of the Pyramid, catalogues, sanitation entrepreneurs
According to its latest Progress Report update, national programs supported through the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) show consistent strong growth and have made significant progress in eradicating the practice of open defecation.
Almost six million people now live in open-defecation free (ODF) communes, villages and districts. This is two million more than six months ago The total number of 3.1 million people with an improved latrine as a result of GSF-funded programs is around double the number reported a year ago.
As of 1 July 2014, the Global Sanitation Fund supports work actively in Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Madagascar, Malawi, Nepal, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo and Uganda. In those countries, more than 140 sub-grantees have raised awareness of sanitation and hygiene nationally and in a number of regions. As a result of their work, more than three million people have access to improved toilets, among other leading indicators of progress.
The total number of 3.1 million people with an improved latrine as a result of GSF-funded programs is around double the number reported a year ago (1.6 million in June 2013). It is encouraging that the number of people in ODF environments and the number of people with improved latrines has continued to increase.
It suggests that efforts by WSSCC in the initial years to build consultative processes, introduce new systems and familiarize sub-grantees and local governments with methods of community-led total sanitation were a sound investment.
This mid-year progress update presents the on-going results of GSF program implementation.
Filed under: Uncategorized
Promoted as their best video of the day, the Guardian has produced a short video animation highlighting the plight of the 2.5 billion without a toilet.
More people have access to mobile phones than to bog-standard sanitation around the world. The numbers are actually quite close – both are around the 4.5bn mark. But the implications are clear: as a species, we value a text, a tweet, the incessant pulse of blinking pixels over one of our most basic sanitary needs: the loo.
Filed under: Multimedia, Sanitary Facilities Tagged: Guardian, videos